Sensitive serological test for Mayaro virus
A new ELISA from EUROIMMUN provides highly sensitive detection of antibodies against Mayaro virus (MAYV) in patient serum samples. MAYV is the causative agent of Mayaro fever, an emerging disease of concern in South America. MAYV fever is clinically indistinguishable from other diseases caused by arboviruses, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya or Oropouche fever, which occur in similar geographic regions. Therefore, laboratory tests play an important role in diagnosis.
The serological analysis supplements direct detection of MAYV, which is only possible for 3 to 5 days after onset of symptoms. MAYV-specific IgM antibodies can be detected at an early stage, often just a few days after symptom onset, and remain detectable for several months. Seroconversion or a significant titre increase in samples taken at least 7 to 10 days apart indicates an acute infection. Anti-MAYV IgG antibodies may persist over many years. In evaluation studies with serologically precharacterized samples the Anti-Mayaro Virus ELISA yielded 100% sensitivity for both IgM and IgG and a high specificity of 100% for IgG and 92 to 97.5% for IgM. The ELISA can be fully automated.
MAYV is an arbovirus which is distributed in South and Central America, especially in regions around the Amazon basin. Its transmission cycle has not been completely elucidated, but it is thought to circulate between mosquitos of the genus Hemagogus and non-human primates. Human epidemics and outbreaks have been described in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. MAYV infections are increasingly observed in urban and no longer only in rural areas. Typical symptoms are fever, headaches, rash, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhea and arthralgia, which may persist for weeks or even months. Clinically inapparent courses cannot be excluded but have not been described so far.